Chinook document

The 1848 and 1851 Agreements between Washington Hall and Chiefs of the Chenook Nation are difficult to read, largely because they were written front and back on the same sheet of paper. They were attached to the 1851 “Anson Dart” Treaty with the Lower Chinooks but, as the treaty was never ratified by the U.S. government, the agreements were not enforced.

The first agreement between the Lower Chinooks and Washington Hall was signed in 1848 by Hall and by two Chinook chiefs: Elwahco (also known as Elwah or Ellewa) who was the son of Comcomly’s sister Carcumcum and Chenamus. It was witnessed by Roman Catholic clergyman Toussaint Mesplié and one other person.

We the undersigned Chiefs of Chenook Nation have this day (bargained?) and agreed with Washington Hall of Chinook that he may have and to use poty (property) and enjoy free of any claims from said Nation of aforesaid the following piece of parcel of land being situate and beginning at a spruce tree on the Bank of the Columbia River Chenook then (Ease? East?) the high tide marker to a (mark?) on the bank of the River then N. to the Mountain, then west to the parallel of the beginning then south to the place of beginning and said Hall promises on his (son?) not to sell said tract of land unless the U.S. should in some future day purchase the Indian title to the said land then the said Hall is free to dispose of the same to whom he pleases and Hall further promises to use his best endeavors to put a stop to the sale of ardent spirits to said Nation of Indians by the request of said Chiefs and Hall further promises not to molest any salmon on the beach contrary to the wish of the subscribed chiefs in testimony whereof in the consideration of 60 dollars in gold paid to said chiefs receipt of the same is hereby acknowledged for the above consideration.

this sept. 12, 1848

Elwah X his mark

Chanamus, X his mark

Witness Matseu, X

T. Mesplie

Washington Hall


The second agreement between the Lower Chinooks and Washington Hall in February 1851 was drawn up specifically to be presented to Indian Agent Anson Dart as a condition of the Tansy Point negotiations. It, also was signed by Hall, by Chinook Chiefs and witnesses for both parties.

We the undersigned resident Chenook Indians on the premises and (near?) the improvements of Washington Hall Chenook Oregon Territory have this the 24th of Feb, 1851 made the following agreement with said Hall aforesaid and subscribed our names to him to Viz. Whereas we being the only occupants of land near the residence of said Hall of the Chenooks are agree that said Hall may possess and cultivate use and enjoy all that portion of land that he may have improved and any other lands on his premises wherein he may wish to improve by permitting us to draw water out of the (Lower?) branch or first branch south of his house @ road to and from said water and said Hall is not to (include?) lands any nearer the River than where he has now (included?) (free?) from any claims from us unless purchased by the United States.

this Feb 24, 1851

Witness W. Hall (seal?)

Joseph (Name illegible — Brown or Lionnet?)

Name (illegible)

Name (illegible

Name (illegible) Elwah Chenamus

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